# A Brief History of Data

Data is increasing exponentially over the past few years. Originally data scientists predicted the volume of data to be 40 ZB by 2020 but bringing IoT into consideration had a impact. Lets look for some** interesting predictions and facts** on data.

- The volume of Big Data is assumed to increase up to 44 Zettabytes(44 trillion GB)
- Data gathered is exponentially growing like YouTube has 300 hours of video uploaded every minute, 40K search queries are performed on Google(~3.46 million/day and 1.2 trillion/yrs), 31.25 million messages and 2.77 million videos on Facebook.
- IDC estimated business transactions including both B2B and B2C through internet will reach up to 450 billion per day in 2020.
- Globally the number of smartphone will increase to 6.1 billion by 2020.
- By 2020 minimum 1/3 of data stored will be stored and analyzed using cloud computing.
- Recent studies indicate that by improving big data integration healthcare could save up to $300 billion a year.
- Out of 85% companies who are trying to be data-driven only 37% have been successful in their initiation.
- Only 0.5% of total accessible data is analyzed and used. There is huge potential in the future.
- 1.7 megabytes of new information will be created for every human being on planet.
- Within 5 years there will be over 50 billion smart connected devices in the world that generates data.
- Distributed computing is working in cloud to process data fast. For an instance Google uses approx. 1000 computers in answering single query which takes no more than 0.2 seconds to complete.
- Hadoop, a open source software for distributed computing, is forecasted to grow at compound growth rate of 58% surpassing $1 billion by 2020.

# Data Size

**How do I calculate the file size for a digital image?**

As the resolution and bit depth of digital detectors continue to improve, the user often gets excited about the improved image quality. Your IT person however may not share your enthusiasm when they see the size of the files being stored. One quick way to calculate the file size of your new system is to calculate the total number of pixels in the detector, multiply that by the number of bits of bit depth and divide the result by 8 (because there are 8 bits in a byte)

*1 Byte = 8 Bit 1 Kilobyte = 1,024 Bytes 1 Megabyte = 1,048,576 Bytes 1 Gigabyte = 1,073,741,824 Bytes*

**Step 1: **Multiply the detectors number of horizontal pixels by the number of vertical pixels to get the total number of pixels of the detector.

**Step 2: **Multiply total number of pixels by the bit depth of the detector (16 bit, 14 bit etc.) to get the total number of bits of data.

**Step 3:** Dividing the total number of bits by 8 equals the file size in bytes.

**Step 4:** Divide the number of bytes by 1024 to get the file size in kilobytes. Divide by 1024 again and get the file size in megabytes.

**Examples:**

Perkin Elmer 1621: 2048 x 2048 = 4,194,304 (4.2 megapixel Detector)

4,194,304 pixels X 16 bit = 67,108,864 ÷ 8bits = 8,388,608 Bytes ÷1024 = 8,192 Kilobytes ÷ 1024 = 8 Megabytes

VARIAN 2520: 1,920 x 1536 = 2949120 (2.95 Megapixel Detector)

2,949,120 x16 bit = 47185920 ÷ 8bits = 5,898,240 Bytes 5,760 Kilobytes ÷ 1024 = 5.625 Megabytes)

**In Sumary:**

Number of Pixels x Bit Depth ÷ 8 ÷ 1024 ÷ 1024 = File Size in Megabytes (MB)

Data is increasing and humans have much more to learn in coming days.